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Old 06-04-2006, 01:41 AM
hari hari is offline
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Default Effective use of emoticons to enhance online communication
Why are emoticons important?

One of the few areas of online communication that doesn't seem to attract much attention from forum owners or users alike is the effective use of emoticons to enhance online communication.

Communication - textual or verbal - is not only about sharing information but also carries an inherent emotional aspect with it. Whether we appreciate it or not, we are subtly influenced by the use of non-verbal cues to interpret communication in real life. The same goes for online communication as well. We always try to "complete" the communication from all aspects and apart from the informational value carried in messages, we also look for the emotional cues that lie beneath.

Classification of emoticons and how they affect online communication

I tend to think of emoticons as the "visual" aspect of online communication that gives us emotional cues. There are two broad categories of emotional messages that an emoticon can carry: positive or negative. Each has its own use in online communication and I'll try to explain them in more specific detail here.

A more detailed classification would be:
  1. Emotion "sharing" emoticons - positive/negative. ( , , , , etc.)
  2. Cue emoticons (, , , etc.)
  3. Ornamental emoticons (all custom/animated emoticons)
However, bear in mind that because of the widespread and careless use of emoticons these days, certain smilies have almost zero emotional content while certain other non-standard emoticons just serve as amusement value for the end users and don't have much effect in delivering emotional messages. Standard emoticons are generally more effective because they are visually simple and have a direct relation to facial expressions of different kinds.

Many of my explanations are based on subjective analysis and experience and have no backing by objective research. But with experience, I'm sure many forum users will agree that emoticons are definitely an important aspect of online communication.

Basic emoticons and their underlying emotional messages

  1. Happy Smile
    The most common emoticon, the happy smile is essentially positive in nature and conveys cheer. The important thing is to note that it should be used only when you would generally smile at the other person while delivering a message. Use of this icon in contradictory situations - namely while delivering negative or aggressive messages can easily be spotted - and will annoy everybody. The excessive use of the smile is also an irritation, so use this only to enhance the friendly tone of a message and not to tone down aggression.
    Situations to use in: thanking somebody, generally sharing a greeting, welcoming messages and in other light, humourous banter where warmth is to be conveyed.
  2. Cheesy/toothy Grin
    This is a very positive emoticon, but has a different connotation from the common smile icon. This should generally be used sparing to have maximum effect and should be used mainly for sharing humour and goodwill and never as a sarcastic device. Because of its high potential for emotional content, this should be used only in positive communication.
    Situations to use in: sharing and enjoying humour, exuding goodwill and in light-hearted banter.
  3. Cheeky/Tongue
    This is another positive emoticon, but has the ability to be interpreted negatively, especially when the message is slightly sarcastic in tone. However, different rendering of this emoticon may have a different effect (see the phpBB version of this to see the difference). While you might interpret the message as a joke, the use of this smiley might convey that you're ridiculing the other party, although mildly. Hence should be used carefully and only when the whole message is absolutely clear.
    Situations to use in: mainly in positive tongue-in-cheek humour or in light banter. Almost never in sarcastic messages and messages which can be interpreted in a negative light.
  4. Sad/unhappy
    This icon might be seen as a negative icon in certain situations, but is almost never aggressive in nature and can be used generally as a way to share unhappiness. However, this icon is best used only in situations where the user is more unhappy with himself/herself than with others. But care needs to be used to make sure that you don't come across as pathetic, especially when asking for help. So it's best avoided when you seek help.
    Situations to use in: Non-aggressive sadness/unhappiness. More effectively used to convey the passive emotion than to share it actively with others.
  5. Angry/aggressive
    This is one of the most aggressive emoticons that there is, mainly because of the intensity of the expression (the frown and the curled lip). This is very effectively used by trolls to stir up emotions, especially as a means to rebuke others. Use very carefully and almost always in showing your anger at impersonal situations or things rather than people. When the message is extremely aggressive in tone, this strengthens the aggression.
    Situations to use in: Best in showing anger at impersonal situations. Also used effectively in communicating that you're heated at the moment and don't wish to discuss a particularly sensitive subject any more.
  6. Rolling eyes
    One of the most powerful smilies in delivering emotional impact - more than the aggressive emoticon - because of the way it's designed. It has a way of stirring up negativity when used as a weapon of cutting contempt (when delivering extremely contemptuous or overbearing messages). Be careful when you intend only mild sarcasm because it strengthens the "contempt" and "overbearing" element in the message. Also used effectively by trolls in ridiculing good, logical arguments.
    Situations to use in: Any message where you need to show heavy sarcasm or cutting contempt and an overbearing attitude. Needless to say, use sparingly at best and in an impersonal context.
Other emoticons with lesser emotional potential

Cue emoticons:
Certain other standard emoticons at best have a mildly amusing or positive influence. Some of them are the , , and . These are generally not as impactful as the basic emoticons. Most of these are not "shared" in the communication but merely as symbols of certain obvious feelings. They are used as highlights to clarify a certain mindset during the communication rather than sharing an emotion.

Ornamental emoticons:
The non-standard emoticons also have little emotional content and serve more as amusement elements, particularly animated ones like . In general, the more complex the emoticon, the less emotional content it carries. That's because the mind doesn't really interpret the emotional aspect of the icon but takes it as amusement. So these icons are used as mildly positive elements in communication, but are not really essential.

Conclusion

The importance of visual cues in communication, verbal or non-verbal, cannot be over-emphasized. Even in online communication, our minds tend to "fill up the missing pieces of the puzzle" and emoticons, if used wisely, can help the communication to convey and enhance the underlying emotional aspects of the communication.

Bear also in mind that this is subjective and the impact will vary depending on the actual quality of the text communication as well as the mindset of the receiver. The key is to used emoticons sparingly and accurately in context to have maximum potential impact.
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Last edited by hari; 06-04-2006 at 02:16 AM..
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  #2  
Old 06-07-2006, 10:52 AM
hari hari is offline
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Hi, any suggestions or feedback on this article?
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Old 06-07-2006, 11:03 AM
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Wow. Very nice guide!

It isn't everyday that we see guides on making emoticons matter. Thanks.
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Old 06-07-2006, 11:57 AM
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Thanks ronoxQ
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Old 06-07-2006, 04:39 PM
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Never knew an article could be written on emoticons You have done well in explaining how emoticons affect an online communication. Thank you
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Old 06-15-2006, 03:35 PM
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I liked this article very much would it be ok to use it on my site for a bit of quality content as a lot of my members are near clueless
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Old 06-15-2006, 03:55 PM
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Awesome, very interesting read. Thanks
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Old 06-15-2006, 04:05 PM
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I got in trouble a couple of years ago over emoticons. I had one flamer that wanted to know what I was smiling at. And then I had another member on a board really take me to task for using more than one emoticon in a post.

I could really have used this article then. I just thought they were fun. So I think it is a great article.
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Old 08-21-2006, 10:49 AM
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Emoticons can often save misunderstandings. Our forum contains mostly members from the USA and the UK. British members (like me) quite frequently use irony in posts, which can sometimes lead to offence being taken by others, who are less accustomed to the use of irony, and take the posting literally. For instance, if I were to write that GW Bush is the greatest American president ever, I could almost guarantee an irate reply.

I have learnt the hard way that the winking emoticon ( or similar) is very useful; even if it removes the subtlety from my post, it shows that I do not intend my statement to be taken literally.
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Old 08-21-2006, 03:23 PM
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I see that happen too. And here in the US people that know me say I have a "dry" since of humor. So I too get taken wrong. And then there are the ones that are just looking for trouble.
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Old 08-21-2006, 05:02 PM
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^tell me about it, I'm danish and for some reason when danes write english it has a way of comming of as jerkish sometimes, especially to people from the US, english people seem to not be affected by it as much, we use a lot of sarcasm and irony when speaking and it's used a lot in everyday talk to poke fun at eachother in a very dry way, but it does not translate very well, so I use emoticons a lot to counteract that.
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Old 08-21-2006, 06:24 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by ILTK
^tell me about it, I'm danish and for some reason when danes write english it has a way of comming of as jerkish sometimes, especially to people from the US, english people seem to not be affected by it as much, we use a lot of sarcasm and irony when speaking and it's used a lot in everyday talk to poke fun at eachother in a very dry way, but it does not translate very well, so I use emoticons a lot to counteract that.
My hat is off to anyone who speaks a 2nd language. And to write in a 2nd language. is great in my opinion. I would probably start a war if I tried writing in another language. I need to double check my post as it is.
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Old 09-15-2006, 09:29 PM
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When I am scanning a forum to see if I want to post there, one of the first things I do (if possible) is look at the smilies. While there is no good or bad group of smilies, the ones picked for a particular board says a lot about the personality of that board. Is the board a no nonsense board? Goofy? Intense? Friendly? The smilies often tell what words do not. I find it a resource (but not the only resource as I look at other things also) in finding if the board and myself would make a good match.
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Old 05-21-2008, 02:51 PM
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Wow, i think this is the first article i have ever seen written about emoticons. With that said, it is a very good article and may change the way some webmasters feel about them.
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Old 05-21-2008, 03:04 PM
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You went way back huh? LOL. Yes, it's still quite a good article and still just as valid 2 years later.

However, there are easier ways to get us to buy insurance.
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Old 05-28-2008, 08:47 AM
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Really an interesting article. From no matter what you will get something valuable if we pay more attention to it
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Old 06-22-2008, 03:33 PM
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Where'd this guy go
what a great post



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Old 11-19-2009, 08:50 PM
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Interesting article. nice work. I think I would be writing an article like this for weeks if I had to write up for each of my emoticons. Noneoftheless, very good.
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Old 11-19-2009, 08:57 PM
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Great article indeed!

I usually use the rolling eyes smiley when I'm being sarcastic/trying to heat a debate more than it needs to be heated.

But generally, I like that you taught me which situation each should be used in.

Cheers.
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Old 02-17-2010, 10:09 AM
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Celebratory Bump for you Hari!

I read this a while back and was completely floored with the skill with which this article was written. You hit everything right on the head.

So glad you're back at Taz!



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